Glossary

Glossary

A

Air separation plants

Air separation plants use Linde processes to produce oxygen, nitrogen and argon.
C

CO2 equivalent (CO2e)

Unit of measurement used to express the effect different greenhouse gases have on the climate compared with a carbon dioxide (CO2) baseline.

Conflict minerals

The US Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (Dodd-Frank Act) defines conflict minerals as raw materials exploited and traded in the Democratic Republic of Congo or neighbouring countries which finance conflict. The Dodd-Frank Act applies to the following raw materials and ores from which they are extracted: tantalum (coltane), tin (cassiterite), tungsten (wolframite) and gold.

Contractors

Employees from third party firms who provide services on Linde’s behalf, especially transport services.

Core labour standards of the International Labour Organisation (ILO)

The core principles of freedom of association, the elimination of forced labour, the abolition of child labour and the elimination of discrimination in respect of employment and occupation are identified in eight conventions. These set out the fundamental rights of employees which member states of the organisation are required to implement following ratification.
D

Defined benefit plans

Pension plans under which an enterprise/employer defines an amount of pension benefit to be provided as a function of one or more factors such as the age, length of service and salary of the employee.

Diversity

At Linde, diversity is understood to be the diverse composition of its staff – which comprises men and women of all ages, of different nationalities and with different ethnic backgrounds, and with different religions and world views.

Dodd-Frank Act

The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act is a federal law which came into force in the United States in 2010, which sets out reporting and disclosure requirements for companies quoted on the US stock exchange with regard to the use of conflict minerals tin, tantalum, gold and tungsten.
E

Emissions Trading System

The European Union’s Emissions Trading System is a climate protection tool aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions at the lowest possible economic cost.

Energy Efficiency Directive (EDD)

The European Union has set itself the target of saving 20 percent of its primary energy consumption by 2020 and made this measure into one of its five headline targets in its Europe 2020 strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. This Directive 2012/27/EU establishes a set of binding measures with regard to certain aspects of the EU’s energy efficiency plan, in order to make a significant contribution to the achievement of the EU’s energy efficiency target.
F

FSSC 22000

FSSC 22000 Food Safety System Certification demonstrates that companies comply with a number of food safety requirements. The certification is based on existing international food safety standards (such as ISO 22000 and PAS 220) and is recognised by the GFSI (Global Food Safety Initiative).

Fuel cell

A device which produces water from hydrogen and from oxygen in the air and in the course of this process releases usable electrical energy.
G

Global Product Strategy (GPS)

The Global Product Strategy of the International Council of Chemical Associations is designed to establish uniform global standards and procedures for companies in order to promote the safe handling of chemicals.

Global Reporting Initiative (GRI)

International initiative founded in 1997 by a number of stakeholders with the aim of developing recognised and comparable reporting guidelines for organisations on economic, social and environmental activities.

Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS)

The United Nations’ GHS is a globally harmonized system for the classification of chemicals and for their labelling on packaging and in safety data sheets. A global method of classification with standard hazard pictograms and text should minimise the risk to human health and the environment during the production, transport and use of chemicals and hazardous substances worldwide.

Good Manufacturing Practice

Good manufacturing practice refers to quality assurance guidelines which apply to the manufacture of pharmaceutical products and active ingredients.

Greenhouse Gas Protocol

Globally recognised standard designed to manage and quantify greenhouse gas emissions. The Greenhouse Gas Protocol originated from an initiative led by the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) and the World Resources Institute (WRI).

Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights

The UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights provide a consensual framework designed to promote human rights regulation in major business enterprises in various contexts. They require states to protect human rights (even against threats from economic players) and they require business enterprises to respect human rights and award the parties concerned access to remedy when business-related human rights abuses occur.
H

HyCO plants

A collective term for plants which produce hydrogen, carbon monoxide and synthesis gas. HyCO plants include in particular steam reformers, partial oxidation plants and methanol crackers.
I

Integrity Line

A Linde system which employees and external stakeholders can use to report any doubts or suspicions. If an internal investigation reveals that the doubts or suspicions raised were justified, a prescribed process within a set timeframe is used to determine what measures should be taken and monitors their implementation.

ISO 14001

The ISO 14001 standard is the basis for the design, introduction, monitoring and ongoing development of environmental management systems. It sets out requirements which are applicable to any organisation, regardless of its type or size or the specific geographical, cultural or social conditions under which it operates. The overall objective of the standard is to promote environmental protection and to reduce the environmental impact of companies – in accordance with economic, social and political requirements. At the same time, the ISO 14001 standard is the basis for the certification of environmental management systems.

ISO 50001

The aim of an energy management system which complies with ISO 50001 is continual improvement in the energy performance of a company. The standard provides a set of requirements that enables companies to introduce, operate and continually optimise their energy management systems. If the implementation of this systematic approach is successful, a company is able to improve its energy performance, increase its energy efficiency and at the same time optimise its energy use.

ISO 9001

The ISO 9001 standard sets out the minimum requirements to be implemented by companies for a quality management system which meets customer requirements and other requirements relating to the quality of the goods and services.
K

Kopernikus projects

The “Kopernikus Projects for the Energy Transition” are the framework for technological and economic solutions for the conversion of the energy system in Germany developed jointly by science, economy and civil society. The research initiative includes projects in four key areas: the development of power supply systems, the storage of surplus renewable energy through conversion to other energy carriers, the adjustment of industrial processes to a fluctuating energy supply and the improved interplay of all sectors of the energy system.
L

Lean Six Sigma Black Belt

A Lean Six Sigma Black Belt is the project manager of complex improvement projects conducted by means of Lean Six Sigma, a methodology that relies on a collaborative team effort to improve performance by systematically removing waste.

LNG

Liquefied Natural Gas. LNG is regarded as a promising fuel of the future because of its high energy density, constant calorific value and high level of purity.
M

Major Hazards Review Programme

Linde set up this programme to ensure the safety of its production processes. The MHRP allows the Group to identify promptly potential risks that might result in accidents or damage to property or to the environment, and to introduce appropriate safety and control measures.
N

Near miss

An undesired event which, under slightly different circumstances, could have resulted in harm to people, harm to the environment, damage to property or loss to production.
O

OHSAS 18001

The OHSAS 18001 standard is an international occupational health and safety management system specification for companies. OHSAS 18001 focuses on the protection of workers and on occupational health and safety.

Olefin plant

Petrochemical plant for the production of olefins such as ethylene and propylene from hydrocarbons.
P

Polymer electrolyte membrane electrolysis

In polymer electrolyte membrane electrolysis, distilled water is split using electricity from electrodes into oxygen, free electrons and positively charged hydrogen ions (protons). The ions pass through a membrane and combine with the electrons to form hydrogen.
R

RBU

Linde’s Gases Division has three reportable segments: EMEA, Asia/Pacific and Americas. These are divided into nine Regional Business Units (RBUs): Africa & UK, Central Europe, Northern Europe, Southern Europe, Middle East & Eastern Europe, South Asia & ASEAN, South Pacific, East Asia and Americas.

REACH

EU Regulation on the Registration, Evaluation and Authorisation of Chemicals which came into force on 1 June 2007, replacing the former legislative framework for chemicals. According to this regulation, companies which manufacture or import chemical substances into the EU in quantities of more than one tonne per annum have to test those chemicals for their impact on health and on the environment and to register them.

Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS)

The revised RoHS EU Directive (2011/65/EU) is designed to restrict the use of certain hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment.

ROCE

Return on capital employed.
S

Serious transport incidents

Transport-related incidents, such as traffic accidents, which have a considerable impact on the health of the parties concerned, result in environmental emissions which must be reported or give rise to a certain level of costs.

SHEQ

Abbreviation for Safety, Health, Environment and Quality.

Steam reforming

The most widely used process for manufacturing hydrogen-rich synthesis gas from light hydrocarbons.

Synthesis gas

Gas mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen or nitrogen and hydrogen used to produce methanol, ammonia and other basic chemicals.
U

UN Global Compact

The United Nations (UN) Global Compact is a global alliance of organisations and businesses which aims to protect human rights, ensure compliance with labour and social standards, encourage environmental responsibility and fight against corruption.

UN Human Rights Charter

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, also known as the Declaration of Human Rights or UN Human Rights Charter or UDHR, comprises recommendations made by the United Nations (which are not legally binding) about general principles relating to human rights. It comprises 30 articles and sets out basic positions about the rights to which every human being is entitled, irrespective of "race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status," and irrespective of the legal relationship they have with the country in which they reside.
V

VOCs

Abbreviation for a variety of volatile organic compounds, many of which are used as solvents or thinners in paints and varnishes. They are precursors of ground level ozone, also known as summer smog.
W

WRI

The World Resources Institute is an organisation which focuses among other things on global warming, ecosystems, renewable energy and the use of resources and seeks to motivate and support companies to achieve more sustainable management.