Air separation plants

Air separation plants use Linde processes to produce oxygen, nitrogen and argon.

Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS)

This process involves separating CO2 from combustion flue gases and storing it, especially in underground sites. The aim is to reduce CO2 emissions into the atmosphere.

Carbon Capture and Usage (CCU)

This process involves separating CO2 from combustion flue gases and using it in industrial processes such as growth promoters for plants or in the cultivation of algae.

Carbon Disclosure Projct (CDP)

CDP is a not-for-profit organisation providing a standardised framework for companies to report environmental information such as greenhouse gas emissions and water consumption. CDP represents several hundred institutional investors.

CO2 equivalent (CO2e)

Unit of measurement used to express the effect different greenhouse gases have on the climate compared with a carbon dioxide (CO2) baseline

Conflict Minerals

The US Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (Dodd- Frank Act) defines conflict minerals as raw materials exploited and traded in the Democratic Republic of Congo or neighbouring countries which finance conflict. The Dodd-Frank Act applies to the ores from which these are extracted: tantalum (coltan), tin (cassiterite), wolfram and gold.


Employees from third party firms who provide services on Linde’s behalf, especially transport services.

Defined benefit plans

Pension plans under which an enterprise/employer defines an amount of pension benefit to be provided as a function of one or more factors such as the age, length of service and salary of the employee.


For Linde, this term comprehends the diverse composition of its staff – for example men and women in all ages, with different nationalities, backgrounds, religions or philosophies of life.

Emissions Trading Programme

The European Union’s emissions trading programme is a climate protection instrument aimed at cutting greenhouse gas emissions at the lowest possible economic cost.

Global Product Strategy (GPS)

The Global Product Strategy of the International Council of Chemical Associations is designed to establish uniform global standards and procedures for companies in order to improve safety in connection with the handling of chemical substances.

Global Reporting Initiative (GRI)

International initiative bringing together numerous stakeholders. Founded in 1997 with the aim of generating recognised, comparable guidelines for corporate reporting on economic, social and environmental activities

Good Manufacturing Practice

Good manufacturing practice refers to quality assurance guidelines which apply to the production of pharmaceutical products and active ingredients.

Greenhouse Gas Protocol

Globally recognised standard designed to manage and quantify greenhouse gas emissions. The Greenhouse Gas Protocol originated from an initiative from the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) and the World Resources Institute (WRI).


Abbreviation for Health, Safety and Environment

HyCO plants

A collective term for plants which produce hydrogen, carbon monoxide and synthesis gas. HyCO plants include in particular steam reformers, partial oxidation plants and methanol crackers.

Integrity Line

System that employees can use to report internal and external stakeholder doubts or suspicions. If an internal investigation reveals that the doubts or suspicions raised were justified, a prescribed process is used within a defined timeframe to determine which measures are to be taken and to follow up on their implementation.

International Standard on Assurance Engagements (ISAE) 3000

ISAE 3000 provides guidelines for audits, which contain non-financial data, for example for the audits of sustainability reports. The guidelines are published by the International Audit and Assurance Standards Board (IAASB).

International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)

International environmental organization that is committed to nature conservation and species protection, as well as to the sustainable and responsible use of resources. Among other things, the IUCN draws up the “IUCN Red List of Threatened Species” and categorises protected areas.


Liquefied Natural Gas. LNG is regarded as a promising fuel of the future because of its high energy density, constant calorific value and high level of purity.

Major Hazard Review Programme

Linde set up this programme to ensure the safety of its production processes. As part of Linde’s process risk management system, the MHRP allows the Group to identify promptly potential risks that might result in accidents or damage to property or to the environment, and to introduce appropriate safety and control measures.


Petrochemical unit for the production of olefins such as ethylene and propylene from hydrocarbons.


Linde’s Gases Division has three reportable segments – EMEA, Asia/Pacific and the Americas. These are divided into nine Regional Business Units (RBUs) – Africa & UK, Central Europe, Northern Europe, Southern Europe, Middle East & Eastern Europe, South Asia & ASEAN, East Asia, South Pacific, Americas.


REACH stands for Registration, Evaluation and Authorisation of Chemicals, and is an EU directive to reform European chemicals legislation. It came into force on 1 June 2007. It stipulates that within the EU, the health and environmental impact of chemical substances must be tested and registered as of an annual production or import volume of one tonne.

Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS)

The revised RoHS EU Directive (2011/65/EU ) is designed to restrict the use of certain hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment.

RFI (Radiative Forcing Index)

At high altitudes, emissions from air travel have a more significant impact on global warming. This effect can be made quantifiable by using the RFI (Radiative Forcing Index): CO2 emissions from air travel are multiplied by the RFI (a factor greater than 1).


Return on capital employed (ROCE)

Serious Transport Incidents

Transport-related incidents, such as traffic accidents, which have a considerable impact on the health of the parties concerned, result in environmental emissions which must be reported or give rise to a certain level of costs.


Abbreviation for Safety, Health, Environment and Quality


Gas mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen or nitrogen and hydrogen used to produce methanol, ammonia and other basic chemicals.

The Climate Registry

Non-profit association of federal states and provinces in North America that aims to independently record and monitor the greenhouse gas emissions of companies, municipalities and organisations. Participation is voluntary.


A leading German testing, inspection and certification company

UN Global Compact

The United Nations (UN) Global Compact is a global alliance of organisations and private businesses that aims to protect human rights, support compliance with labour standards, encourage environmental responsibility and combat corruption.

Vigilance Signal Detection - System

A system to ensure the systematic ongoing safety of a pharmaceutical product. It aims to discover, evaluate and understand undesirable effects and side-effects of the product by assessing various sources such as incident reports, scientific and medical literature and clinical studies, so that appropriate measures may be taken to minimise risks.

VOC (Volatile Organic Compounds)

Refers to a variety of organic compounds, many of which are used as solvents or thinners in paints and varnishes. They act as precursors of ground level ozone, also known as “summer smog”.

Voluntary Guidelines on Biodiversity-Inclusive Impact Assessment

The internationally recognised guidelines are endorsed by the parties to the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity and comprise recommendations as to how to incorporate the impact on biodiversity into an impact assessment.


The World Business Council for Sustainable Development is an organization that is designed to motivate companies to do business more sustainably and provide them with support in this regard.